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Complex Properties Since 1926


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Oil and Gas Price Escalation Factors for Tax Year 2023 per Property Tax Code, Section 23.175

P&A has finalized the Section 23.175 calculation required to derive the oil and gas price escalation scenarios for the 2023 tax year.

The EIA’s price projections which form the basis of our Price Adjustment Factor calculations can be found at either https://www.eia.gov/outlooks/aeo/ or https://www.eia.gov/outlooks/steo/ depending on whether the AEO (Annual Energy Outlook) or STEO (Short-Term Energy Outlook) is applicable for the current tax year.

For 2023, the January STEO is the applicable EIA report.

The price escalatory factors for years 2-6 in our discounted cashflow appraisals are calculated with reference to Producer Price Index (PPI) Commodity Data information which can be found at https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/srgate Please search for series ID WPU0561 (for oil) or WPU0531 (for natural gas).

In addition, see how these factors produce P&A's reference price forecasts for oil and gas, with a comparison to the previous tax year's oil and gas price forecasts.

Please note, the oil and gas price forecasts for the current tax year may or may not be similar to those used for the previous tax year, for both oil and gas. However, it should be noted that the valuation of mineral interests depends on more than price alone. Forecasts of oil and gas production and expense levels as of January 1 also figure prominently into the calculations. Expense levels tend to follow price movement in a lagging (less volatile) fashion, while production tends to decline over time as a natural result of changing reservoir conditions (pressure loss, recovery percentage, etc.). Therefore, a price difference by itself does not fully indicate how current valuations will compare with valuations performed for any previous tax year.

As always, we welcome any thoughts or suggestions you have regarding our appraisal work, etc. We are here to serve the taxpayers in the most efficient, timely and fair manner possible.


Business Personal Property (BPP) Renditions


Per Chapter 22 of the Texas Property Tax Code, all tangible taxable personal property used for the production of income (i.e., business personal property, or BPP) that a company owns or manages and controls as a fiduciary on January 1 must be “rendered” for taxation. A property tax rendition is simply a listing of information about property that you own, such as description, location, historical or acquisition cost, and age of each item. This is a legally confidential document, not subject to Open Records requests, that appraisal districts need and use in their discovery and appraisal procedures so that all tangible taxable personal property is appraised fairly, efficiently, and as accurately as possible.

 BPP acquires taxable situs in a taxing unit (county, school, hospital district, etc.) when:

         a) located in the unit on January 1 for more than a temporary period;
         b) normally located in the unit, even though it is outside the unit on January 1, if it is outside the unit only temporarily;
         c) normally returned to the unit between uses elsewhere and is not located in any one place for more than a temporary period; or
         d) the owner resides (for property not used for business purposes) or maintains the owner’s principal place of business in this state
            (for property used for business purposes) in the unit and the property is taxable in this state but does not have a taxable
            situs pursuant to any of the first three provisions above.

BPP renditions in Texas are due on April 15, with the following exceptions:

         • A 30-day extension to May 15 is automatically available upon request to the chief appraiser.
         • The deadline for rendering property regulated by the PUC, RRC, FERC, or STB is April 30, although a 15-day extension to May 15
            is automatically available upon request to the chief appraiser.
         • In both cases above, another 15-day extension to May 30 can be granted by the chief appraiser if the owner shows “good cause”
            (intended to be a high hurdle for the owner to prove).

PLEASE NOTE: Per Property Tax Code Sec. 22.01(i), a property owner whose property is being appraised by a third-party vendor retained by the appraisal district (like Pritchard & Abbott!) can choose, in lieu of renditions, to provide information substantially equivalent to that required to be on a rendition directly to the third-party appraisal company. We highly encourage property owners to take advantage of this option when available, as it greatly helps us perform more accurate and complete appraisals prior to mailing the Notices of Appraised Value. Otherwise, we must wait for our appraisal district clients to forward us renditions. All these deadlines apply equally to renditions or 22.01(h) or (i) property reports provided to either appraisal districts or their contracted appraisal firms in lieu of renditions.

All the deadlines discussed above apply equally to renditions or 22.01(h) or (i) property reports provided to either appraisal districts or their contracted appraisal firms in lieu of renditions.

Each year the comptroller and each chief appraiser shall publicize in a manner reasonably designed to notify all property owners the requirements of the law relating to filing rendition statements and property reports and of the availability of forms. A person required to render property or to file a report as provided by this chapter shall use a form that substantially complies with the appropriate form
prescribed or approved by the comptroller.

Appraisal districts are not obligated to mail rendition forms to property owners, although many do only as a courtesy. Property owners can find and print approved rendition forms directly from the Comptroller’s website:


Which form to use depends on the type of property being rendered. Each form requires a property owner to furnish the information necessary to identify the property and to determine its ownership, taxability, and situs. A property owner can (but is not required to) furnish additional information on the form, including a good faith estimate of value. A tax agent (but not the property owner) is required to swear that the information provided in the rendition is true and accurate to the best of their knowledge and belief.

Substantial tax penalties can accrue for failure to timely file a rendition or if the property owner or agent is found to have committed fraudulent conduct in an inspection, determination, or other proceeding before the appraisal district.

More information is available in the Texas Property Tax Code, Chapter 22 (Renditions and Other Reports), such as what persons and which property is covered by this business personal property rendition law.



New Economic Obsolescence Appraisal Policy for Pipelines

P&A is committed to the uniform and accurate appraisal of all pipelines. Beginning tax year 2015 we’ve instituted a new policy regarding pipelines we appraise using the Cost Approach. Specifically, we’re amending the way we provide for Economic Obsolescence (a form of depreciation) based on “utilization” (throughput versus capacity of the pipeline). Although we’re not amending the formula itself we’ve used for many years now (a variation of the Chilton equation), we are striving for more clarity in the throughput and capacity figures required in the formula. Please see this throughput appraisal policy memo  for details. Thank you for your understanding and cooperation. Please feel free to contact any of our utility appraisers if you have any questions.

New Hyperbolic Production Forecast Feature in P&A Mineral Appraisals

We've improved our production forecast abilities by incorporating a hyperbolic formula using parameters from Aries decline curve software. See this explanation  for more details.

Outsourcing to Contract Appraisal / Software Firms

From time to time we get questions from clients (or potential clients) who want to know the functions or purpose of a private consulting firm like Pritchard & Abbott, Inc. What role(s) do appraisal and software firms have regarding ad valorem tax in Texas, when Appraisal Districts and taxing entities were specifically created by the Texas legislature to handle these matters? See this outsourcing discussion  for more details.

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